School of Physics and Astronomy

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Prof Steve D Evans

Molecular and Nanoscale Physics Group

Contact details

Room: 8.34
Tel: +44 (0)113 3433852
Email: s.d.evans @ leeds.ac.uk

Keywords

Lipid Membranes
Microbubbles
Nanoparticles
Nanoparticles
Nanowires
Liquid Crystals
Surface Modification
Self-Assembled Monolayers

Research interests

Self-Organising molecular systems and their behaviour at interfaces have provided a focus to the research carried out in my group for the past 20 years. The majority of studies have centred on three classes of systems:

I) Supported lipid membranes and Biofunctionalised Inorganic Surfaces

II) Liquid crystal -self-assembled monolayer interactions

III) Inorganic nanostructured materials

I) Supported lipid membranes and Biofunctionalised Inorganic Surfaces

The cytoplasmic membrane separates the environment inside a cell from that outside. Such membrane structures are highly dynamic and yet display long-term stability and are effective barriers against the transport of water-soluble ions and large molecules, thus providing the ability to generate the electrical and chemical gradients necessary for cell function.

The transduction of signals (chemical or electrical), metabolites and nutrients across such membranes are governed by proteins that sit within the membrane. The wide variety of roles played by these proteins has made them important targets in drug discovery as well for understanding aspects of cellular biology and disease. In spite of their importance, the structures of only a relatively small number of membrane proteins (<100) are known from the many thousands that exist. Furthermore such proteins are generally unstable outside of their membranous environment, thus methods that permit their manipulation and interrogation in artificial cellular mimics could play a useful role in determining structure-function relations as well as offer interesting possibilities for diagnostic screening, semi-synthetic sensing systems.

Bio-sensing and Electron Transport

In Leeds, we have developed a range of methodologies for attaching such membranes to solid supports and for creating membrane arrays or complex membrane patterns. We have incorporated a number of functional membrane proteins, including the acetylcholine receptor and the G-coupled protein bovine rhodopsin, to demonstrate their applicability for bio-sensing applications based on impedance spectroscopy, ion conductance or optical spectroscopic techniques and the work has been supported by EPSRC, BBSRC, Qinetiq and Philips (William, Jenkins, Cheng, Jeuken, Krzeminski).

Since such proteins play critical roles in smell, taste, sight and so on, a long term goal has been the development of integrated hybrid organic–inorganic systems utilizing the highly evolved protein receptors in conjunction with silicon or carbon based electronics.

Synthetic/Minimal Systems and Hierarchical Assembly

To the formation systems of increasing complexity we have been developing two minimal systems, both on surfaces and within giant unilamellar vesicles.

The simplest of these is to create actin-like cortices on planar membranes and within vesicles. (Johnson, Barfoot) Such cortices are expected to provide simple mimics of the real actin systems and are the first steps toward creating dynamic, enclosed scaffolds. Current work on these systems has been instigating the role of membrane domains for localizing the actin nucleating protein ponticulin and controlling actin nucleation /formation. The use of such systems for controlling the mechanical properties of gas-filled, lipid-coated microbubbles is currently being explored and these systems have potential for creating artificially villi (proposal with Banting).

A more complex system is that of bacterial cell wall formation. The bacterial cell wall is constructed of peptidoglycan, a combination of short peptide chains that are cross-linked through transglycosylated and transpeptidation steps at the bilayer interface in a process involving a number of membrane proteins. Both the membrane proteins as well as the lipopetide pre-cursors need to be incorporated into the lipid membrane in a functional form. Our work has demonstrated that this has been possible either through purely synthetic routes or by using the e. coli inner membrane to form the supported lipid bilayer (Spencelayh, Dodds, Vinatier). This offers new routes for the production of simple screening platforms for testing novel antibiotics, as well as for generating a better understanding of the process of bacterial cell wall formation.

Membrane Protein Manipulation and Brownian Ratchets

A great challenge for studying structure-function relations of membrane proteins is their instability outside of their membranous environment. Further, reconstituting membrane proteins at high concentration in liposomes or supported bilayers has proved difficult. Methods permitting the manipulation of such proteins could therefore play a significant role for their in-membrane purification, concentration and functional studies. We are currently looking to see how the combination of electric fields and asymmetric patterns can be used to move, concentrate and hopefully crystallize membrane proteins. These studies will allow multi-modal studies to be simultaneously performed on membranes containing low protein levels and are aslo likely to lead to application in screening and diagnostics (Cheetham 2011, 2012). We also envisage this approach will allow the separation of membrane species – for example separations of lipid species and or membranes protein whilst still within their native membrane.

Microbubbles for Therapeutic Delivery

Lipid and polymer stabilised microbubbles (MBs) have been used as contrast enhancers in ultrasound (US) imaging for nearly 30 years. The air–liquid interface and the compressibility of the MBs reflects and scatters sound waves more effectively than tissue interfaces alone, enhancing US images of internal organs. Recently, there has been much interest in combining the imaging properties of MBs with the possibility of therapeutic delivery, such as for the delivery of drugs for chemotherapy or DNA/siRNA vectors for gene therapy.

The Leeds project brings together a multidisciplinary team, including scientists, engineers and clinicians to develop therapeutic microbubbles for the treatment of colorectal cancer. However the approach is quite generic and is also likely to find application for the treatment of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disease.

The key aspects of the project are:

i) The development of microfluidics for the formation of microbubbles with complex architectures.

ii) The development of novel surface coatings and their mechanical characterization.

iii) The development of ultrasound for triggered microbubble disruption and drug release.

iv) The in-vitro and in-vivo testing of drug microbubble architectures and efficacy of drug targeting.

In addition to coordinating the overall project the Evans group is responsible for part i) and ii). In part i) we are using a combination of self-assembly and microfluidics to drive the formation of microbubbles containing a lipid coating plus a payload (liposome) and finally an antibody layer for targeting the bubbles plus payload (Peyman). In the future we will extend this system to deliver hydrophobic drugs and gene therapy vectors. In part ii) we are investing the mechanical and physic-chemical properties of microbubbles with lipid coatings and seeking to develop novel coatings – including for example creating microbubbles with actin scaffolds. We are also seeking to develop bubbles hydrophobic materials in their core (Grant, McKendry).

II) Liquid crystal/self-assembled monolayer interactions

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) offer a versatile way of controlling surface free energy and can be readily patterned to provide spatial control over the chemical groups presented at the SAM/ambient interface. We have used evanescent wave ellipsometry and optical microscopy to study the anchoring and alignment of liquid crystals at such SAM modified substrates (Allison). Interestingly, on patterned surfaces, once the feature size was reduced below ~10 um we found it was possible to obtain excellent uniform LC alignment over large areas and to spatially control the assembly of focal conic defects (Bramble 2007). Most recently we extended this work from calamitic systems to discotic ones where we have found similar control could be extended over a variety of columnar phase forming materials, including phthalocyanines. This may offer interesting possibilities for extension to light harvesting systems; our structures have strong similarities with the alignment found in chlorosomes (Bramble 2010).

III) Inorganic nanostructured materials (Nanoparticles and Nanowires)

Nanoparticles and Nanowires are of interest for a wide variety of potential applications from energy harvesting to medical treatment. Our work started on the application SAM functionalised nanoparticles for chemical vapour vapour sensing (Johnson, Zhang). More recently however our interest has focussed on metallic and to a lesser degree semiconductor nanowires. Projects currently being pursued are:

i) conductivity in ultrathin metallic nanowires (<20 nm) – here the interest is in obtaining low resistivity samples in which electron scattering is dominated by surface scattering as opposed to scattering from grain boundaries. Under such conditions the binding of charged species to the surface, eg a bio molecule, will lead to new scattering centres and hence changes in conductivity. We are undertaking single nanowire electronic measurements using 4-probe STM and have achieved resistance values approaching the theoretical predictions for diameters >20 nm and are now seeking to reduce these to enter the highly surface sensitive regime (Critchley).

ii) The use of biological (viral and peptide) templates for high active surface area electrodes – with potential for the efficient catalytic oxidation of methanol (Gorzny).

iii) Development of nanomaterials for medical applications; a) use of Au/Ag hollow tubes for disease specific therapeutic delivery and b) use of polymer nanoparticles incorporating Fe3O4 and Qdots for in-cell tracking and multimodal imaging.

Key Papers relevant to Current Research Interests

The key papers relevant to the ongoing portfolio of research, and as referred to above, are given in Appendix I.

Useful links

Evans personal WWW pages
mnp Group

Publications

Mico V, Charalambous A, Peyman SA, Abou-Saleh RH, Markham AF, Coletta PL, Evans SD Evaluation of lipid-stabilised tripropionin nanodroplets as a delivery route for combretastatin A4 International Journal of Pharmaceutics 526 547-555, 2017
DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.05.009
View abstract

Johnson A, Bao P, Hurley CR, Cartron M, Evans SD, Hunter CN, Leggett GJ Simple, Direct Routes to Polymer Brush Traps and Nanostructures for Studies of Diffusional Transport in Supported Lipid Bilayers Langmuir 33 3672-3679, 2017
DOI:10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b00497
View abstract

Bao P, Cartron ML, Sheikh KH, Johnson BRG, Hunter CN, Evans SD Controlling transmembrane protein concentration and orientation in supported lipid bilayers Chemical Communications 53 4250-4253, 2017
DOI:10.1039/C7CC01023K
View abstract

McLaughlan JR, Harput S, Abou-Saleh RH, Peyman SA, Evans S, Freear S Characterisation of Liposome-Loaded Microbubble Populations for Subharmonic Imaging Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 43 346-356, 2017
DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2016.09.011
View abstract

Johnson A, Madsen J, Chapman P, Alswieleh A, Al-Jaf O, Bao P, Hurley CR, Cartron ML, Evans SD, Hobbs JK, Hunter CN, Armes SP, Leggett GJ Micrometre and nanometre scale patterning of binary polymer brushes, supported lipid bilayers and proteins Chemical Science 8 4517-4526, 2017
DOI:10.1039/c7sc00289k
View abstract

Harrison PL, Heath GR, Johnson BRG, Abdel-Rahman MA, Strong PN, Evans SD, Miller K Phospholipid dependent mechanism of smp24, anα-helical antimicrobial peptide from scorpion venom Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes 1858 2737-2744, 2016
DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2016.07.018
View abstract

Harvie AJ, Booth M, Chantry RL, Hondow N, Kepaptsoglou DM, Ramasse QM, Evans SD, Critchley K Observation of compositional domains within individual copper indium sulfide quantum dots Nanoscale 8 16157-16161, 2016
DOI:10.1039/c6nr03269a
View abstract

Ye S, Benz F, Wheeler MC, Oram J, Baumberg JJ, Cespedes O, Christenson HK, Coletta PL, Jeuken LJC, Markham AF, Critchley K, Evans SD One-step fabrication of hollow-channel gold nanoflowers with excellent catalytic performance and large single-particle SERS activity Nanoscale 8 14932-14942, 2016
DOI:10.1039/c6nr04045d
View abstract

Kong Y, Chen J, Fang H, Heath G, Wo Y, Wang W, Li Y, Guo Y, Evans SD, Chen S, Zhou D Highly Fluorescent Ribonuclease-A-Encapsulated Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots for Ultrasensitive Fluorescence in Vivo Imaging in the Second Near-Infrared Window Chemistry of Materials 28 3041-3050, 2016
DOI:10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b00208
View abstract

Heath GR, Evans SD, Connell SD Fluctuating Lipid Nanodomains Near Critical Transitions, 2016

Abou-Saleh RH, Peyman SA, Johnson BRG, Marston G, Ingram N, Bushby R, Coletta PL, Markham AF, Evans SD The influence of intercalating perfluorohexane into lipid shells on nano and microbubble stability Soft Matter 12 7223-7230, 2016
DOI:10.1039/c6sm00956e
View abstract

Peyman SA, McLaughlan JR, Abou-Saleh RH, Marston G, Johnson BRG, Freear S, Coletta PL, Markham AF, Evans SD On-chip preparation of nanoscale contrast agents towards high-resolution ultrasound imaging Lab on a Chip 16 679-687, 2016
DOI:10.1039/c5lc01394a
View abstract

Tarn MD, Peyman SA, Archibald SJ, Evans SD, Pamme N Simple fabrication of all-glass herringbone devices for the rapid production of liposomes, 2016
View abstract

Churchman AH, Mico V, De Pablo JG, Peyman SA, Evans SD Forming oil layer inside microbubbles through single step microfluidics, towards hydrophobic drug delivery, 2016
View abstract

Benz F, de Nijs B, Tserkezis C, Chikkaraddy R, Sigle DO, Pukenas L, Evans SD, Aizpurua J, Baumberg JJ Generalized circuit model for coupled plasmonic systems Optics Express 23 33255-33269, 2015
DOI:10.1364/OE.23.033255
View abstract

Pukenas L, Benn F, Lovell E, Santoro A, Kershaw Cook LJ, Halcrow MA, Evans SD Bead-like structures and self-assembled monolayers from 2,6-dipyrazolylpyridines and their iron(ii) complexes Journal of Materials Chemistry C 3 7890-7896, 2015
DOI:10.1039/c5tc01233c
View abstract

Wang L, Roth JS, Han X, Evans SD Photosynthetic proteins in supported lipid bilayers: towards a biokleptic approach for energy capture Small 11 3306-3318, 2015
DOI:10.1002/smll.201403469
View abstract

Roth JS, Zhang Y, Bao P, Cheetham MR, Han X, Evans SD Optimization of Brownian ratchets for the manipulation of charged components within supported lipid bilayers Applied Physics Letters 106 -, 2015
DOI:10.1063/1.4919801
View abstract

Cheng N, Bao P, Evans SD, Leggett GJ, Armes SP Facile formation of highly mobile supported lipid bilayers on surface-quaternized pH-responsive polymer brushes Macromolecules 48 3095-3103, 2015
DOI:10.1021/acs.macromol.5b00435
View abstract

Ye S, Marston G, McLaughlan JR, Sigle DO, Ingram N, Freear S, Baumberg JJ, Bushby RJ, Markham AF, Critchley K, Coletta PL, Evans SD Engineering gold nanotubes with controlled length and near-infrared absorption for theranostic applications Advanced Functional Materials 25 2117-2127, 2015
DOI:10.1002/adfm.201404358
View abstract

Blakeston AC, Alswieleh AM, Heath GR, Roth JS, Bao P, Cheng N, Armes SP, Leggett GJ, Bushby RJ, Evans SD New poly(amino acid methacrylate) brush supports the formation of well-defined lipid membranes Langmuir 31 3668-3677, 2015
DOI:10.1021/la504163s
View abstract

Benz F, Tserkezis C, Herrmann LO, De Nijs B, Sanders A, Sigle DO, Pukenas L, Evans SD, Aizpurua J, Baumberg JJ Nanooptics of molecular-shunted plasmonic nanojunctions Nano Letters 15 669-674, 2015
DOI:10.1021/nl5041786
View abstract

Heath GR, Roth J, Connell SD, Evans SD Diffusion in Low-Dimensional Lipid Membranes Nano letters 14 5984-5988, 2014
DOI:10.1021/nl503024v
View abstract

Taylor RW, Benz F, Sigle DO, Bowman RW, Bao P, Roth JS, Heath GR, Evans SD, Baumberg JJ Watching individual molecules flex within lipid membranes using SERS Scientific Reports 4 -, 2014
DOI:10.1038/srep05940
View abstract

Radu V, Frielingsdorf S, Evans SD, Lenz O, Jeuken LJC Enhanced oxygen-tolerance of the full heterotrimeric membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase of Ralstonia eutropha. J Am Chem Soc 136 8512-8515, 2014
DOI:10.1021/ja503138p
View abstract

Abou-Saleh RH, Swain M, Evans SD, Thomson NH Poly(ethylene glycol) lipid-shelled microbubbles: abundance, stability, and mechanical properties. Langmuir 30 5557-5563, 2014
DOI:10.1021/la404804u
View abstract

Prompinit P, Achalkumar A, Walton A, Bushby R, Walti CP, Evans SD Reversible metallisation of soft UV patterned substrates Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2 5916-5923, 2014
DOI:10.1039/c4tc00464g
View abstract

Heath GR, Abou-Saleh RH, Peyman SA, Johnson BRG, Connell SD, Evans SD Self-assembly of actin scaffolds on lipid microbubbles Soft Matter 10 694-700, 2014
DOI:10.1039/c3sm52199k
View abstract

Peyman SA, McLaughlan J, Marston G, Freear S, Coletta PL, Evans SD On-chip production of nanometer sized 'Ultra fine' bubble populations, 2014
View abstract

Churchman AH, Mico V, Peyman SA, Evans SD Single step microfluidic production of microbubble architechtures for hydrophobic drug delivery, 2014
View abstract

Cattle J, Bao P, Bramble JP, Bushby RJ, Evans SD, Lydon JE, Tate DJ Controlled planar alignment of discotic liquid crystals in microchannels made using SU8 photoresist Advanced Functional Materials 23 5997-6006, 2013
DOI:10.1002/adfm.201301613
View abstract

McLaughlan J, Ingramy N, Abou-Salehzx R, Harput S, Evans T, Evansz S, Colettay L, Freear S High-frequency subharmonic imaging of liposome-loaded microbubbles, 2013
DOI:10.1109/ULTSYM.2013.0381
View abstract

McLaughlan J, Ingram N, Smith PR, Harput S, Coletta PL, Evans S, Freear S Increasing the sonoporation efficiency of targeted polydisperse microbubble populations using chirp excitation. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 60 2511-2520, 2013
DOI:10.1109/TUFFC.2013.2850
View abstract

Heath GR, Johnson BRG, Olmsted PD, Connell SD, Evans SD Actin assembly at model-supported lipid bilayers Biophysical Journal 105 2355-2365, 2013
DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2013.10.007
View abstract

Bencsik M, Al-Rwaili A, Morris R, Fairhurst DJ, Mundell V, Cave G, Mckendry J, Evans S Quantitation of MRI sensitivity to Quasi-monodisperse microbubble contrast agents for spatially resolved manometry Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 70 1409-1418, 2013
DOI:10.1002/mrm.24575
View abstract

McMillan DGG, Marritt SJ, Firer-Sherwood MA, Shi L, Richardson DJ, Evans SD, Elliott SJ, Butt JN, Jeuken LJC Protein-protein interaction regulates the direction of catalysis and electron transfer in a redox enzyme complex. J Am Chem Soc 135 10550-10556, 2013
DOI:10.1021/ja405072z
View abstract

Peyman SA, Abou-Saleh RH, Evans SD Research spotlight: microbubbles for therapeutic delivery. Ther Deliv 4 539-542, 2013
DOI:10.4155/tde.13.23
View abstract

Al-Lawati ZH, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Alignment of a columnar hexagonal discotic liquid crystal on self-assembled monolayers Journal of Physical Chemistry C 117 7533-7539, 2013
DOI:10.1021/jp3111056
View abstract

Abou-Saleh RH, Peyman SA, Critchley K, Evans SD, Thomson NH Nanomechanics of lipid encapsulated microbubbles with functional coatings. Langmuir 29 4096-4103, 2013
DOI:10.1021/la304093t
View abstract

Dobrzanska DA, Cooper AL, Dowson CG, Evans SD, Fox DJ, Johnson BR, Biggs CI, Randev RK, Stec HM, Taylor PC, Marsh A Oxidation of tertiary amine-derivatized surfaces to control protein adhesion. Langmuir 29 2961-2970, 2013
DOI:10.1021/la4003719
View abstract

Wnęk M, Górzny ML, Ward MB, Wälti C, Davies AG, Brydson R, Evans SD, Stockley PG Fabrication and characterization of gold nano-wires templated on virus-like arrays of tobacco mosaic virus coat proteins. Nanotechnology 24 025605-, 2013
DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/24/2/025605
View abstract

Peyman SA, Abou-Saleh R, Ingram N, Marston G, Coletta PL, Evans SD High production rates of stable drug-loadable microbubbles toward targetted, triggared drug delivery, 2013
View abstract

Bao P, Cheetham MR, Roth JS, Blakeston AC, Bushby RJ, Evans SD On-chip alternating current electrophoresis in supported lipid bilayer membranes. Anal Chem 84 10702-10707, 2012
DOI:10.1021/ac302446w
View abstract

O'Rorke R, Wood C, Walti C, Evans SD, Davies AG, Cunningham JE Acousto-microfluidics: Trapping and transporting microbubbles using surface acoustic waves, 2012
DOI:10.1109/ULTSYM.2012.0188
View abstract

Peyman SA, Abou-Saleh RH, McLaughlan JR, Ingram N, Johnson BRG, Critchley K, Freear S, Evans JA, Markham AF, Coletta PL, Evans SD Expanding 3D geometry for enhanced on-chip microbubble production and single step formation of liposome modified microbubbles. Lab Chip 12 4544-4552, 2012
DOI:10.1039/c2lc40634a
View abstract

Harput S, McLaughlan J, Smith PR, Cowell DMJ, Evans SD, Freear S Separating the second harmonic response of tissue and microbubbles using bispectral analysis, 2012

McLaughlan J, Smith PR, Ingram N, Coletta L, Evans SD, Freear S Chirp excitation of polydisperse microbubble populations for increasing sonoporation efficiency, 2012

Al-Lawati ZH, Alkhairalla B, Bramble JP, Henderson JR, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Alignment of discotic lyotropic liquid crystals at hydrophobic and hydrophilic self-assembled monolayers Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116 12627-12635, 2012
DOI:10.1021/jp302634r
View abstract

Cheetham MR, Bramble JP, McMillan DGG, Bushby RJ, Olmsted PD, Jeuken LJC, Evans SD Manipulation and sorting of membrane proteins using patterned diffusion-aided ratchets with AC fields in supported lipid bilayers Soft Matter 8 5459-5465, 2012
DOI:10.1039/c2sm25473e
View abstract

Tanaka M, Critchley K, Matsunaga T, Evans SD, Staniland SS Fabrication of lipid tubules with embedded quantum dots by membrane tubulation protein. Small 8 1590-1595, 2012
DOI:10.1002/smll.201102446
View abstract

O'Rorke RD, Wood CD, Waelti C, Evans SD, Davies AG, Cunningham JE Acousto-microfluidics: Transporting microbubble and microparticle arrays in acoustic traps using surface acoustic waves JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 111 -, 2012
DOI:10.1063/1.4711101

Galloway JM, Bramble JP, Rawlings AE, Burnell G, Evans SD, Staniland SS Nanomagnetic arrays formed with the biomineralization protein Mms6 Journal of Nano Research 17 127-146, 2012
DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/JNanoR.17.127
View abstract

Galloway JM, Bramble JP, Rawlings AE, Burnell G, Evans SD, Staniland SS Biotemplated magnetic nanoparticle arrays. Small 8 204-208, 2012
DOI:10.1002/smll.201101627
View abstract

Grant CA, McKendry JE, Evans SD Temperature dependent stiffness and visco-elastic behaviour of lipid coated microbubbles using atomic force microscopy SOFT MATTER 8 1321-1326, 2012
DOI:10.1039/c1sm06578e

Costello CM, Kreft J-U, Thomas CM, Hammes DM, Bao P, Evans SD, Mendes PM Exploiting additive and subtractive patterning for spatially controlled and robust bacterial co-cultures SOFT MATTER 8 9147-9155, 2012
DOI:10.1039/c2sm26111a

Daskalakis NN, Evans SD, Jeuken LJC Vesicle-modified electrodes to study proton-pumping by membrane proteins, 2011
DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2011.06.073

Krzemiński L, Cronin S, Ndamba L, Canters GW, Aartsma TJ, Evans SD, Jeuken LJC Orientational control over nitrite reductase on modified gold electrode and its effects on the interfacial electron transfer. J Phys Chem B 115 12607-12614, 2011
DOI:10.1021/jp205852u
View abstract

Harput S, Raiton B, Sofotasios PC, Mclaughlan J, Evans S, Freear S The Periodicity between the Aggregated Microbubbles by Secondary Radiation Force, 2011

Krzemiński Ł, Ndamba L, Canters GW, Aartsma TJ, Evans SD, Jeuken LJC Spectroelectrochemical investigation of intramolecular and interfacial electron-transfer rates reveals differences between nitrite reductase at rest and during turnover. J Am Chem Soc 133 15085-15093, 2011
DOI:10.1021/ja204891v
View abstract

Achalkumar AS, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Synthesis of nitrilotriacetic acid terminated tethers for the binding of His-tagged proteins to lipid bilayers and to gold TETRAHEDRON 67 6246-6251, 2011
DOI:10.1016/j.tet.2011.06.049

Cheetham MR, Bramble JP, McMillan DGG, Krzeminski L, Han X, Johnson BRG, Bushby RJ, Olmsted PD, Jeuken LJC, Marritt SJ, Butt JN, Evans SD Concentrating membrane proteins using asymmetric traps and AC electric fields. J Am Chem Soc 133 6521-6524, 2011
DOI:10.1021/ja2007615
View abstract

Stephens CJ, Kim Y-Y, Evans SD, Meldrum FC, Christenson HK Early stages of crystallization of calcium carbonate revealed in picoliter droplets. J Am Chem Soc 133 5210-5213, 2011
DOI:10.1021/ja200309m
View abstract

Cheneler D, Bowen J, Evans SD, Gorzny M, Adams MJ, Ward MCL Characteristics and durability of fluoropolymer thin films POLYM DEGRAD STABIL 96 561-565, 2011
DOI:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2010.12.022

Daskalakis NN, Muller A, Evans SD, Jeuken LJC Driving bioenergetic processes with electrodes SOFT MATTER 7 -, 2011
DOI:10.1039/c0sm01016b

Prompinit P, Achalkumar AS, Bramble JP, Bushby RJ, Wälti C, Evans SD Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2 3686-3692, 2010
DOI:10.1021/am100832p
View abstract

Weiss SA, Bushby RJ, Evans SD, Jeuken LJC A study of cytochrome bo3 in a tethered bilayer lipid membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta 1797 1917-1923, 2010
DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2010.01.012
View abstract

Kendall JKR, Johnson BRG, Symonds PH, Imperato G, Bushby RJ, Gwyer JD, van Berkel C, Evans SD, Jeuken LJC Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a tool for studying ion channels in tethered bilayer lipid membranes European Cells and Materials 20 136-, 2010

Cheetham MR, Bramble JP, Johnson BRG, Han X, Jeuken LJC, Olmsted PD, Evans SD Electric field induced build-up and separation of charged species in patterned supported bilayer lipid membranes ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 240 -, 2010

Jeuken LJC, Weiss SA, Daskalakis NN, Henderson PJF, Evans SD, Bushby RJ Novel electrodes for redox-active membrane enzymes ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 240 -, 2010

Kendall JKR, Johnson BRG, Symonds PH, Imperato G, Bushby RJ, Gwyer JD, van Berkel C, Evans SD, Jeuken LJC Effect of the structure of cholesterol-based tethered bilayer lipid membranes on ionophore activity. Chemphyschem 11 2191-2198, 2010
DOI:10.1002/cphc.200900917
View abstract

Jeuken LJC, Weiss SA, Daskalakis NN, McMillan DGG, Evans SD, Bushby RJ Novel electrochemical methods to characterise ubiquinol oxidase activity in native-like model-membrane systems, 2010
DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2010.04.343

Critchley K, Khanal BP, Górzny MŁ, Vigderman L, Evans SD, Zubarev ER, Kotov NA Near-bulk conductivity of gold nanowires as nanoscale interconnects and the role of atomically smooth interface. Adv Mater 22 2338-2342, 2010
DOI:10.1002/adma.201000236

Bramble JP, Tate DJ, Revill DJ, Sheikh KH, Henderson JR, Liu F, Zeng XB, Ungar G, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Planar Alignment of Columnar Discotic Liquid Crystals by Isotropic Phase Dewetting on Chemically Patterned Surfaces ADV FUNCT MATER 20 914-920, 2010
DOI:10.1002/adfm.200902140

Gorzny M, Walton AS, Evans SD Synthesis of High-Surface-Area Platinum Nanotubes Using a Viral Template Advanced Functional Materials 20 1295-1300, 2010
DOI:10.1002/adfm.200902196

Han X, Achalkumar AS, Cheetham MR, Connell SDA, Johnson BRG, Bushby RJ, Evans SD A self-assembly route for double bilayer lipid membrane formation. Chemphyschem 11 569-574, 2010
DOI:10.1002/cphc.200900798

Achalkumar AS, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Cholesterol-based anchors and tethers for phospholipid bilayers and for model biological membranes SOFT MATTER 6 6036-6051, 2010
DOI:10.1039/c0sm00030b

McKendry JE, Grant CA, Johnson BRG, Coletta PL, Evans JA, Evans SD Force spectroscopy of streptavidin conjugated lipid coated microbubbles Bubble Science, Engineernig and Technology 2 48-54, 2010

Prompinit P, Achalkumar AS, Han XJ, Bushby RJ, Walti C, Evans SD Improved Photoreaction Yields for Soft Ultraviolet Photolithography in Organothiol Self-Assembled Monolayers J PHYS CHEM C 113 21642-21647, 2009
DOI:10.1021/jp907950c

Critchley K, Cheadle EM, Zhang H-L, Baldwin KJ, Liu Q, Cheng Y, Fukushima H, Tamaki T, Batchelder DN, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Surface plasmon Raman scattering studies of liquid crystal anchoring on liquid-crystal-based self-assembled monolayers. J Phys Chem B 113 15550-15557, 2009
DOI:10.1021/jp907497p
View abstract

Sudhakar AA, Han XJ, Connell SD, Jonson B, Bushby RJ, Evans SD COLL 373-Self-assembly route for double bilayer lipid membrane formation ABSTR PAP AM CHEM S 238 -, 2009

Han X, Achalkumar AS, Bushby RJ, Evans SD A cholesterol-based tether for creating photopatterned lipid membrane arrays on both a silica and gold surface. Chemistry 15 6363-6370, 2009
DOI:10.1002/chem.200900404
View abstract

Strashilov VL, Alexieva GE, Velichkov VN, Avramov ID, Evans SD STW Resonator With Organo-Functionalized Metallic Nanoparticle Film for Vapor Sensing IEEE T ULTRASON FERR 56 1018-1023, 2009
DOI:10.1109/TUFFC.2009.1133

Bowen J, Manickam M, Iqbal P, Evans SD, Critchley K, Preece JA, Kendall K The adhesive properties of pyridine-terminated self-assembled monolayers THIN SOLID FILMS 517 3806-3812, 2009
DOI:10.1016/j.tsf.2009.01.093

Wood CD, Cunningham JE, O'Rorke R, Walti C, Linfield EH, Davies AG, Evans SD Formation and manipulation of two-dimensional arrays of micron-scale particles in microfluidic systems by surface acoustic waves APPL PHYS LETT 94 -, 2009
DOI:10.1063/1.3076127

Han XJ, Cheetham MR, Sheikh K, Olmsted PD, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Manipulation and charge determination of proteins in photopatterned solid supported bilayers INTEGR BIOL 1 205-211, 2009
DOI:10.1039/b815601h

Weiss SA, Bushby RJ, Evans SD, Henderson PJF, Jeuken LJC Characterization of cytochrome bo(3) activity in a native-like surface-tethered membrane BIOCHEM J 417 555-560, 2009
DOI:10.1042/BJ20081345

Walton AS, Gorzny ML, Bramble JP, Evans SD Photoelectric Properties of Electrodeposited Copper(I) Oxide Nanowires J ELECTROCHEM SOC 156 K191-K195, 2009
DOI:10.1149/1.3208038

Atherton TJ, Sambles JR, Bramble JP, Henderson JR, Evans SD Anomalous uniform domain in a twisted nematic cell constructed from micropatterned surfaces LIQ CRYST 36 353-358, 2009
DOI:10.1080/02678290902898174

Hamlett CAE, Docker PT, Ward MCL, Prewett PD, Critchley K, Evans SD, Preece JA pH-dependent adsorption of Au nanoparticles on chemically modified Si3N4 MEMS devices J EXP NANOSCI 4 147-157, 2009
DOI:10.1080/17458080902929911

Vinatier V, Blakey CB, Braddick D, Johnson BRG, Evans SD, Bugg TDH In vitro biosynthesis of bacterial peptidoglycan using D-Cys-containing precursors: fluorescent detection of transglycosylation and transpeptidation CHEM COMMUN 4037-4039, 2009
DOI:10.1039/b819869a

Iqbal P, Critchley K, Attwood D, Tunnicliffe D, Evans SD, Preece JA Chemical manipulation by X-rays of functionalized thiolate self-assembled monolayers on Au. Langmuir 24 13969-13976, 2008
DOI:10.1021/la802244a
View abstract

Jeuken LJC, Weiss SA, Henderson PJF, Evans SD, Bushby RJ Impedance spectroscopy of bacterial membranes: coenzyme-Q diffusion in a finite diffusion layer. Anal Chem 80 9084-9090, 2008
DOI:10.1021/ac8015856
View abstract

Jeuken LJ, Weiss SA, Henderson PJ, Evans SD, Bushby RJ Impedance Spectroscopy of Bacterial Membranes: Coenzyme-Q Diffusion in a Finite Diffusion Layer. Anal Chem -, 2008
DOI:10.1021/ac8015856
View abstract

Johnson BRG, Barfoot R, Sheikh K, Colyer J, Bushby RJ, Evans SD COLL 56-Actin scaffolds on supported and suspended bilayer lipid membranes, 2008

Dodd CE, Johnson BRG, Vinatier V, Bugg TDH, Bushby RJ, Jeuken LJC, Evans SD COLL 53-Peptidoglycan biosynthesis on lipid bilayers, 2008

Cheetham MR, Han XJ, Olmsted PD, Jeuken LJC, Evans SD COLL 158-Electric field induced build up and separation of charged species in supported bilayer lipid membranes, 2008

Hamlett CAE, Critchley K, Gorzny M, Evans SD, Prewett PD, Preece JA Vapour phase formation of amino functionalised Si3N4 surfaces SURF SCI 602 2724-2733, 2008
DOI:10.1016/j.susc.2008.06.026

Weiss SA, Evans SD, Bushby R, Henderson PJF, Jeuken LJC Characterisation of ubiquinol oxidase activity in a native-like membrane using voltammetry, 2008
DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2008.05.264

Barfoot RJ, Sheikh KH, Johnson BRG, Colyer J, Miles RE, Jeuken LJC, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Minimal F-actin cytoskeletal system for planar supported phospholipid bilayers. Langmuir 24 6827-6836, 2008
DOI:10.1021/la800085n
View abstract

Dodd CE, Johnson BRG, Jeuken LJC, Bugg TDH, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Native E. coli inner membrane incorporation in solid-supported lipid bilayer membranes, 2008
DOI:10.1116/1.2896113

Gorzny ML, Walton AS, Wnek M, Stockley PG, Evans SD Four-probe electrical characterization of Pt-coated TMV-based nanostructures NANOTECHNOLOGY 19 -, 2008
DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/19/16/165704

Han XJ, Sheikh K, Pradeep SND, Critchley K, Bushby RJ, Evans SD COLL 262-Supported bilayer lipid membranes on photopatterned self-assembled monolayers ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY 235 -, 2008

Bowen J, Manickam M, Evans SD, Critchley K, Kendall K, Preece JA The pH-dependent adhesion of nanoparticles to self-assembled monolayers on gold THIN SOLID FILMS 516 2987-2999, 2008
DOI:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.11.002

Marten J, Erbe A, Critchley K, Brarnble JP, Weber E, Evans SD Self-assembled layers based on isomerizable stilbene and diketoarylhydrazoitie moieties LANGMUIR 24 2479-2486, 2008
DOI:10.1021/la703109x

Holt LA, Bushby RJ, Evans SD, Burgess A, Seeley G A 10(6)-fold enhancement in the conductivity of a discotic liquid crystal doped with only 1% (w/w) gold nanoparticles J APPL PHYS 103 -, 2008
DOI:10.1063/1.2885722

Wood CD, Cunningham J, Evans SD, O'Rorke R, Walti CP, Davies AG Alignment of particles in microfluidic systems using standing surface acoustic waves Applied Physics Letters 92 -, 2008
DOI:10.1063/1.2838748

Dodd CE, Johnson BRG, Jeuken LJC, Evans SD Native E. coli inner membrane incorportaion in solid supported lipid bilayer membranes Biointerphases 3 FA59-FA67, 2008
DOI:10.1116/1.2896113
View abstract

Hamlett CEA, Critchley K, Gorzny M, Evans SD, Prewett PD, Preece JA Vapour phase formation of amino functionalised Si3N4 surfaces Surface Science 602 2724-2733, 2008
DOI:10.1016/j.susc.2008.06.026
View abstract

Iqbal P, Critchley K, Attwood D, Tunnicliffe D, Evans SD, Preece JA Chemical Manipulation by X-rays of Functionalized Thiolate Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au Langmuir 24 13969-13976, 2008

McKendry JE, Allen CS, Critchley K, Gorzny ML, Walton AS, Evans SD Magnetic field enhanced nano-tip fabrication for four-probe STM studies Nanotechnology 19 -, 2008
View abstract

Geng J, Mantovani G, Tao L, Nicolas J, Chen GJ, Wallis R, Mitchell DA, Johnson BRG, Evans SD, Haddleton DM Site-directed conjugation of "Clicked" glycopolymers to form glycoprotein mimics: Binding to mammalian lectin and induction of immunological function J AM CHEM SOC 129 15156-15163, 2007
DOI:10.1021/ja072999x

Critchley K, Ducker R, Bramble JP, Zhang L, Bushby RJ, Leggett GJ, Evans SD Photo-deprotection patterning of self-assembled monolayers Journal of Experimental Nanoscience 2 279-290, 2007
DOI:10.1080/17458080701675780
View abstract

Johnston SA, Yeung CL, Bramble J, Evans SD, Preece JA, Mendes PM, Machesky LM Cell spreading in response to adhesive microenvironments European Cells and Materials 14 98-, 2007

Johnson BRG, Bushby RJ, Colyer J, Evans SD Erratum: Self-assembly of actin scaffolds at ponticulin containing supported phospholipid bilayers (Biophysical Journal (2006) 90, (L21-L23)) Biophysical Journal 93 704-, 2007
DOI:10.1529/biophysj.107.0900157

Mykhaylyk TA, Dmitruk NL, Evans SD, Hamley IW, Henderson JR Comparative characterisation by atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry of soft and solid thin films SURF INTERFACE ANAL 39 575-581, 2007
DOI:10.1002/sia.2566

Johnson BRG, Bushby RJ, Colyer J, Evans SD Self-assembly of actin scaffolds at ponticulin containing supported phospholipid bilayers.(vol 90, pg L21, 2006) BIOPHYS J 93 704-704, 2007
DOI:10.1529/biophysj.107.0900160

Johnson BRG, Bushby RJ, Colyer J, Evans SD Self-assembly of actin scaffolds at ponticulin containing supported phospholipid bilayers.(vol 90, pg L21, 2006) BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL 93 704-704, 2007
DOI:10.1529/biophysj.107.0900160

Jeuken LJC, Daskalakis NN, Han XJ, Sheikh K, Erbe A, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Phase separation in mixed self-assembled monolayers and its effect on biomimetic membranes SENSOR ACTUAT B-CHEM 124 501-509, 2007
DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2007.01.014

Sheikh KH, Evans SD, Christenson HK Titration of ionizable monolayers by measurement of the electric double-layer force LANGMUIR 23 6893-6895, 2007
DOI:10.1021/la7007304

Erbe A, Bushby RJ, Evans SD, Jeuken LJC Tethered bilayer lipid membranes studied by simultaneous attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. J Phys Chem B 111 3515-3524, 2007
DOI:10.1021/jp0676181
View abstract

Walton AS, Allen CS, Critchley K, Gorzny ML, McKendry JE, Brydson RMD, Hickey BJ, Evans SD Four-probe electrical transport measurements on individual metallic nanowires NANOTECHNOLOGY 18 -, 2007
DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/18/6/065204

Han X, Critchley K, Zhang L, Pradeep SND, Bushby RJ, Evans SD A novel method to fabricate patterned bilayer lipid membranes. Langmuir 23 1354-1358, 2007
DOI:10.1021/la062636v
View abstract

Sheikh KH, Christenson HK, Bushby RJ, Evans SD A model system to study the insertion of cholesterol into a phospholipid monolayer. J Phys Chem B 111 379-386, 2007
DOI:10.1021/jp0636423
View abstract

Bramble JP, Evans SD, Henderson JR, Atherton TJ, Smith NJ Observations of focal conic domains in smectic liquid crystals aligned on patterned self-assembled monolayers LIQ CRYST 34 1137-1143, 2007
DOI:10.1080/2678290701618351

Jeuken LJC, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Proton transport into a tethered bilayer lipid membrane Electrochemistry Communication 9 610-614, 2007
DOI:10.1016/j.elecom.2006.10.045
View abstract

Iqbal P, Critchley K, Bowen J, Attwood D, Tunnicliffe D, Evans SD, Preece JA Fabrication of a nanoparticle gradient substrate by thermochemical manipulation of an ester functionalized SAM Journal of Materials Chemistry 17 5097-5110, 2007

Critchley K, Ducker R, Bramble JP, Zhang L, Bushby RJ, Leggett GJ, Evans SD Photo-deprotection patterning of self-assembled monolayers J EXP NANOSCI 2 278-290, 2007
DOI:10.1080/17458080701675780

Han XJ, Pradeep SND, Critchley K, Sheikh K, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Supported bilayer lipid membrane arrays on photopatterned self-assembled monolavers CHEM-EUR J 13 7957-7964, 2007
DOI:10.1002/chem.200700521

Bramble JP, Evans SD, Henderson JR, Anquetil C, Cleaver DJ, Smith NJ Nematic liquid crystal alignment on chemical patterns LIQ CRYST 34 1059-1069, 2007
DOI:10.1080/02678290701614665

Critchley K, Zhang LX, Fukushima H, Ishida M, Shimoda T, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Soft-UV photolithography using self-assembled monolayers J PHYS CHEM B 110 17167-17174, 2006
DOI:10.1021/jp0630370

Heriot SY, Zhang HL, Evans SD, Richardson TH Multilayers of 4-methylbenzenethiol functionalized gold nanoparticles fabricated by Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer deposition COLLOID SURFACE A 278 98-105, 2006
DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.12.004

Spencelayh MJ, Cheng Y, Bushby RJ, Bugg TDH, Li J-J, Henderson PJF, O'Reilly J, Evans SD Antibiotic action and peptidoglycan formation on tethered lipid bilayer membranes. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 45 2111-2116, 2006
DOI:10.1002/anie.200504035

Sun SQ, Mendes P, Critchley K, Diegoli S, Hanwell M, Evans SD, Leggett GJ, Preece JA, Richardson TH Fabrication of gold micro- and nanostructures by photolithographic exposure of thiol-stabilized gold nanoparticles NANO LETT 6 345-350, 2006
DOI:10.1021/nl052130h

Jeuken LJC, Connell SD, Henderson PJF, Gennis RB, Evans SD, Bushby RJ Redox enzymes in tethered membranes. J Am Chem Soc 128 1711-1716, 2006
DOI:10.1021/ja056972u
View abstract

Johnson BRG, Bushby RJ, Colyer J, Evans SD Self-Assembly of Actin Scaffolds at Ponticulin-Containing Supported Phospholipid Bilayers Biophysical Journal 90 L21-L23, 2006
DOI:10.1529/biophysj.105.076521
View abstract

Boote JJ, Critchley K, Evans SD Surfactant mediated assembly of gold nanowires on surfaces J EXP NANOSCI 1 125-142, 2006
DOI:10.1080/17458080600669785

Sun SQ, Montague M, Critchley K, Chen MS, Dressick WJ, Evans SD, Leggett GJ Fabrication of biological nanostructures by scanning near-field photolithography of chloromethylphenyisiloxane monolayers NANO LETT 6 29-33, 2006
DOI:10.1021/nl051804l

Iqbal P, Critchley K, Begum S, Attwood D, Evans SD, Preece JA Novel 3,4-disubstituted thiophenes for weak passivation of Au nanoparticles J EXP NANOSCI 1 143-164, 2006
DOI:10.1080/17458080500504058

Diegoli S, Mendes PM, Baguley ER, Leigh SJ, Iqbal P, Diaz YRG, Begum S, Critchley K, Hammonds GD, Evans SD, Attwood D, Jones IP, Preece JA PH-dependent gold nanoparticle self-organization on functionalized Si/SiO2 surfaces J EXP NANOSCI 1 333-353, 2006
DOI:10.1080/17458080600778644

Boote JJ, Evans SD Dielectrophoretic manipulation and electrical characterization of gold nanowires NANOTECHNOLOGY 16 1500-1505, 2005

Brewer NJ, Janusz S, Critchley K, Evans SD, Leggett GJ Photooxidation of self-assembled monolayers by exposure to light of wavelength 254 nm: A static SIMS study J PHYS CHEM B 109 11247-11256, 2005
DOI:10.1021/jp0443299

Zhang H-L, Evans SD, Critchley K, Fukushima H, Tamaki T, Fournier F, Zheng W, Carrez S, Dubost H, Bourguignon B Novel cyanoterphenyl self-assembly monolayers on Au(111) studied by ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrational spectroscopies. J Chem Phys 122 224707-, 2005
DOI:10.1063/1.1893618
View abstract

Critchley K, Jeyadevan JP, Fukushima H, Ishida M, Shimoda T, Bushby RJ, Evans SD A mild photoactivated hydrophilic/hydrophobic switch. Langmuir 21 4554-4561, 2005
View abstract

Evans SD, Johnson BRG, Bushby RJ, Colyer J, Jeuken L, Miles R Membranes, scaffolds and surfaces., 2005

Johnson BRG, Sheikh K, Evans SD, Colyer J, Bushby RJ Hierarchical self assembly of cytoskeletal scaffolds bound to supported phospholipid bilayers., 2005

Mykhaylyk TA, Evans SD, Hamley IW, Henderson JR Ellipsometric study of adsorption on nanopatterned block copolymer substrates J CHEM PHYS 122 -, 2005
DOI:10.1063/1.1860371

Jeuken LJC, Connell SD, Nurnabi M, O'Reilly J, Henderson PJF, Evans SD, Bushby RJ Direct electrochemical interaction between a modified gold electrode and a bacterial membrane extract. Langmuir 21 1481-1488, 2005
DOI:10.1021/la047732f
View abstract

Bourlange A, Hickey BJ, Evans SD, Pecchia A, Movaghar B, Kelsall RW, Boden N In-plane resistance of an ultra thin gold film: Influence of a copper phthalocyanine overlayer Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals 413 -, 2004
DOI:10.1080/15421400490432614
View abstract

Kolliopoulou S, Dimitrakis P, Normand P, Zhang HL, Cant N, Evans SD, Paul S, Pearson C, Molloy A, Petty MC, Tsoukalas D Integration of organic insulator and self-assembled gold nanoparticles on Si MOSFET for novel non-volatile memory cells, 2004
DOI:10.1016/j.mee.2004.03.042

Mendes PM, Jacke S, Critchley K, Plaza J, Chen Y, Nikitin K, Palmer RE, Preece JA, Evans SD, Fitzmaurice D Gold nanoparticle patterning of silicon wafers using chemical e-beam lithography LANGMUIR 20 3766-3768, 2004
DOI:10.1021/la049803g

Mykhaylyk TA, Collins S, Hamley IW, Evans SD, Henderson JR Ordered structures and phase transitions in thin films of polystyrene/polyisoprene block copolymer and blends with the corresponding homopolymers J MATER SCI 39 2249-2252, 2004

Lovely GR, Brown AP, Evans SD, Brydson RMD HRTEM characterisation of surface effects in iron oxide nanop[articles Institute of Physics Conference Series 179 479-482, 2004

Bourlange A, Hickey BJ, Evans SD, Pecchia A, Movaghar B, Kelsall RW, Boden N In-plane resistance of an ultra thin gold film: Influence of a copper phthalocyanine overlayer Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals 413 2217-2226, 2004
DOI:10.1080/15421400490432614

Paul S, Palumbo M, Petty MC, Cant N, Evans SD Deposition of functionalised gold nanoparticles by the layer-by-layer electrostatic technique Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings 789 195-200, 2003
View abstract

Kolliopoulou S, Dimitrakis P, Normand P, Zhang HL, Cant N, Evans SD, Paul S, Pearson C, Molloy A, Petty MC, Tsoukalas D Hybrid silicon-organic nanoparticle memory device J APPL PHYS 94 5234-5239, 2003
DOI:10.1063/1.1604962

Mendes P, Belloni M, Ashworth M, Hardy C, Nikitin K, Fitzmaurice D, Critchley K, Evans S, Preece J A novel example of X-ray-radiation-induced chemical reduction of an aromatic nitro-group-containing thin film on SiO2 to an aromatic amine film CHEMPHYSCHEM 4 884-889, 2003
DOI:10.1002/cphc.200300699

Mykhaylyk TA, Evans SD, Fernyhough CM, Hamley IW, Henderson JR Surface energy of ethylene-co-1-butene copolymers determined by contact angle methods Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 260 234-239, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0021-9797(02)00188-1

Kelsall RW, Pecchia A, Bourlange A, Movaghar B, Evans SD, Hickey BJ, Boden N Electronic properties of hybrid metal-discotic liquid crystal nanostructures PHYSICA E-LOW-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS&NANOSTRUCTURES 17 654-658, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S1386-9477(02)00922-0

Zhang HL, Evans SD, Henderson JR Spectroscopic ellipsometric evaluation of gold nanoparticle thin films fabricated using layer-by-layer self-assembly ADV MATER 15 531-534, 2003

Griffin SDC, Beales LP, Clarke DS, Worsfold O, Evans SD, Jaeger J, Harris MPG, Rowlands DJ The p7 protein of hepatitis C virus forms an ion channel that is blocked by the antiviral drug, Amantadine FEBS LETT 535 34-38, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03851-6

Zhang HL, Evans SD, Henderson JR, Miles RE, Shen T Spectroscopic characterization of gold nanoparticles passivated by mercaptopyridine and mercaptopyrimidine derivatives Journal of Physical Chemistry: B 107 6087-6095, 2003
DOI:10.1021/jp030297y

Cant NE, Critchley K, Zhang H, Evans SD Surface functionalisation for the self-assembly of nanoparticle/polymer multilayer films Thin Solid Films 426 31-39, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0040-6090(02)01300-7

Cant NE, Zhang H, Critchley K, Mykhalyk TA, Davies GR, Evans SD Fabrication and characterization of self-assembled nanoparticle/polyelectrolyte multilayer films Journal of Physical Chemistry: B 107 13557-13562, 2003
DOI:10.1021/jp035388+

Mykhaylyk TA, Evans SD, Fernyhough C, Hamley IW, Henderson JR Surface energy of ethylene-co-1-butene copolymers determined by contact angle methods Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 260 234-239, 2003
DOI:10.1016/S0021-9797(02)00188-1

Kolliopoulou S, Tsoukalas D, Dimitrakis P, Normand P, Zhang HL, Cant N, Evans SD, Paul S, Pearson C, Molloy A, Petty MC A multi-stack insulator silicon-organic memory device with gold nanoparticles, 2003
DOI:10.1109/ESSDERC.2003.1256917
View abstract

Pratumpong P, Cochrane RF, Evans SD, Johnson S, Howson MA Quantum interference effects in nanostructured Au Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 14 11779-11783, 2002
DOI:10.1088/0953-8984/14/45/319

Becucci L, Guidelli R, Liu QY, Bushby RJ, Evans SD A biomimetic membrane consisting of a polyethyleneoxythiol monolayer anchored to mercury with a phospholipid bilayer on top J PHYS CHEM B 106 10410-10416, 2002
DOI:10.1021/jp020742+

Alkhairalla B, Boden N, Cheadle E, Evans SD, Henderson JR, Fukushima H, Miyashita S, Schonherr H, Vancso GJ, Colorado R, Graupe M, Shmakova OE, Lee TR Anchoring and orientational wetting of nematic liquid crystals on semi-fluorinated self-assembled monolayer surfaces EUROPHYS LETT 59 410-416, 2002

Pecchia A, Kelsall RW, Movaghar B, Bourlange A, Evans SD, Hickey BJ, Boden N Interactions of self-organised discotic liquid crystals with ultrathin metal films MATER SCI TECH-LOND 18 729-732, 2002
View abstract

Zhang HL, Evans SD, Henderson JR, Miles RE, Shen T Vapour sensing using surface functionalized gold nanoparticles Nanotechnology 13 439-444, 2002
DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/13/3/339

Jenkins ATA, Bushby RJ, Evans SD, Knoll W, Offenhausser A, Ogier SD Lipid vesicle fusion on mu CP patterned self-assembled monolayers: Effect of pattern geometry on bilayer formation LANGMUIR 18 3176-3180, 2002
DOI:10.1021/la011510p

Evans SD, Henderson JR, Miles RE, Shen T, Zhang H Vapour sensing using surface functionalized gold nanoparticles Nanotechnology 13 439-444, 2002
DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/13/3/339

Pecchia A, Kelsall RW, Movaghar B, Bourlange A, Evans SD, Hickey BJ, Boden N Electronic bandstructure and transport properties of self-organised organic-inorganic heterostructures Journal of computational Electronics 1 pp.399-, 2002
DOI:10.1023/A:1020768128595

Lovely GR, Brown AP, Evans SD, Brydson RMD Characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles using analytical FEGTEM, 2002

Booth C, Bushby RJ, Cheng YL, Evans SD, Liu QY, Zhang HL Synthesis of novel biotin anchors TETRAHEDRON 57 9859-9866, 2001

Cheadle EM, Batchelder DN, Evans SD, Zhang HL, Fukushima H, Miyashita S, Graupe M, Puck A, Shmakova OE, Colorado R, Lee TR Polymerization of semi-fluorinated alkane thiol self-assembled monolayers containing diacetylene units LANGMUIR 17 6616-6621, 2001

Cheng YL, Bushby RJ, Evans SD, Knowles PF, Miles RE, Ogier SD Single ion channel sensitivity in suspended bilayers on micromachined supports LANGMUIR 17 1240-1242, 2001

Moore RGC, Evans SD, Shen T, Hodson CEC Room-temperature single-electron tunnelling in surfactant stabilised iron oxide nanoparticles PHYSICA E 9 253-261, 2001

Guiomar AJ, Evans SD, Guthrie JT Evaluation of the permeability of modified cellulose acetate propionate membranes for use in biosensors based on hydrogen peroxide detection Cellulose Communications 9 297-301, 2001

Guiomar AJ, Evans SD, Guthrie JT Evaluation of the Permeability of Modified Cellulose Acetate-Propionate Membranes for Use in Bionsensors Based on Hydrogen Peroxide Detection Cellulose Communications 8 297-301, 2001
DOI:10.1023/A:1015137809504

Pecchia A, Movaghar B, Kelsall RW, Bourlange A, Evans SD, Hickey BJ, Boden N Electronic transport in self-organised molecular nanostructured devices, 2001
View abstract

Ogier SD, Bushby RJ, Cheng Y, Cox TI, Evans SD, Knowles PF, Miles RE, Pattison I Lipid bilayers suspended on microfabricated supports, 2001
View abstract

Brown AP, Brydson RMD, Evans SD, Moore RGC Characterisation of iron oxide nanoparticles using EELS, 2001

Bushby RJ, Evans SD, Lozman OR, McNeill A, Movaghar B Enhanced charge conduction in discotic liquid crystals Journal of Materials Chemistry 11 1982-1984, 2001
DOI:10.1039/b104112f

Cheng YL, Batchelder DN, Evans SD, Henderson JR, Lydon JE, Ogier SD Imaging of micropatterned self-assembled monolayers with adsorbed liquid crystals LIQ CRYST 27 1267-1275, 2000

Cheng Y, Ogier SD, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Discrete membrane arrays. J Biotechnol 74 159-174, 2000
View abstract

Ogier SD, Bushby RJ, Cheng YL, Evans SD, Evans SW, Jenkins ATA, Knowles PF, Miles RE Suspended planar phospholipid bilayers on micromachined supports LANGMUIR 16 5696-5701, 2000

Batchelder DN, Cheng YL, Evans SD, Henderson JR Wetting transitions of simple liquid films adsorbed on self-assembled monolayer substrates: an ellipsometric study MOL PHYS 98 807-814, 2000

Pecchia A, Movaghar B, Kelsall RW, Bourlange A, Evans SD, Howson MA, Shen T Conductivity of two-dimensional metal-organic hybrid films Microelectronic Engineering 51 633-644, 2000

Costello RF, Evans SW, Evans SD, Peterson IR, Heptinstall J Detection of complement activity by using a polysaccharide-protected membrane ENZYME MICROB TECH 26 301-303, 2000

Evans SD, Johnson SR, Cheng YLL, Shen TH Vapour sensing using hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructured materials J MATER CHEM 10 183-188, 2000

Evans SD, Williams LM The Formation of Organised Molecular Assemblies via Spontaneous Adsorption In Functional Organic and Polymeric Materials , 2000

Cheng Y, Ogier SD, Bushby RJ, Evans SD Discrete membrane arrays Journal of biotechnology 74 159-174, 2000
DOI:10.1016/S1389-0352(00)00016-7
View abstract

Bardosova M, Evans SD, Hodge P, Jablonska V, Johnson S, Tredgold RH Ultra-thin films of polymerised smectic liquid crystals. A study using AFM and ellipsometry MAT SCI ENG C-BIO S 8-9 85-87, 1999

Jenkins ATA, Boden N, Bushby RJ, Evans SD, Knowles PF, Miles RE, Ogier SD, Schonherr H, Vancso GJ Microcontact printing of lipophilic self-assembled monolayers for the attachment of biomimetic lipid bilayers to surfaces J AM CHEM SOC 121 5274-5280, 1999

Boden N, Bushby RJ, Martin PS, Evans SD, Owens RW, Smith DA Triphenylene-based discotic liquid crystals as self-assembled monolayers LANGMUIR 15 3790-3797, 1999

Alkhairalla B, Allinson H, Boden N, Evans SD, Henderson JR Anchoring and orientational wetting of nematic liquid crystals on self-assembled monolayer substrates: An evanescent wave ellipsometric study PHYS REV E 59 3033-3039, 1999

Jenkins ATA, Boden N, Bushby RJ, Evans SD, Knowles PF, Miles RE, Ogier SD, Schonherr H, Vansco GJ Microcontact Printing of Lipophilic Self-Assembled Monolayers for the Attachment of Biomimetic Lipid Bilayers to Surfaces Journal of the American Chemical Society 121 5274-5280, 1999

Guiomar AJ, Guthrie JT, Evans SD Use of mixed, self-assembled monolayers in a study of the effect of the micro-environment on immobilised glucose oxidase Langmuir 15 1198-1207, 1999

Guiomar AJ, Guthrie JT, Evans SD Use of Mixed, Self-assembled Monolayers in a Study of the Effect of the Micro-environment on Immobilised Glucose Oxidase Langmuir 15 1198-1207, 1999

Johnson SR, Evans SD, Brydson R Influence of a terminal functionality on the physical properties of surfactant-stabilized gold nanoparticles LANGMUIR 14 6639-6647, 1998

Evans SD, Johnson SR, Ringsdorf H, Williams LM, Wolf H Photoswitching of azobenzene derivatives formed on planar and colloidal gold surfaces LANGMUIR 14 6436-6440, 1998

Boden N, Bushby RJ, Liu QY, Evans SD, Jenkins TA, Miles RE N,N '-disuccinimidyl carbonate as a coupling agent in the synthesis of thiophospholipids used for anchoring biomembranes to gold surfaces TETRAHEDRON 54 11537-11548, 1998

Jenkins ATA, Bushby RJ, Boden N, Evans SD, Knowles PF, Liu QY, Miles RE, Ogier SD Ion-selective lipid bilayers tethered to microcontact printed self-assembled monolayers containing cholesterol derivatives LANGMUIR 14 4675-4678, 1998

Cheng YL, Batchelder DN, Evans SD, Henderson JR Polarized ATR-IR studies of surface-field-induced anchoring of alkyl cyanobiphenyls J PHYS CHEM B 102 5309-5312, 1998

Armour P, Emmerson CM, Shen TH, Evans SD, Rainford BD The growth of metallic multilayers on semiconductor substrates and in-situ optical monitoring: The case of Co/Cu on silicon with Pb impurity, 1998

Cheng YL, Boden N, Bushby RJ, Clarkson S, Evans SD, Knowles PF, Marsh A, Miles RE Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic characterization of fluid lipid bilayers tethered to solid supports LANGMUIR 14 839-844, 1998

Jenkins ATA, Bushby RJ, Boden N, Evans SD, Knowles PF, Liu QY, Miles RE, Ogier SD Ion-selective Lipid Bilayers Tethered to Microcontact Printed Self-Assembled Monolayers Containing Cholesterol Derivatives Langmuir 4675-4678, 1998

Williams LM, Evans SD, Flynn TM, Marsh A, Knowles PF, Bushby RJ, Boden N Kinetics of formation of single phospholipid bilayers on self-assembled monolayer supports, as monitored by surface plasmon resonance, 1997

Johnson SR, Evans SD, Mahon SW, Ulman A Synthesis and characterisation of surfactant-stabilised gold nanoparticles, 1997

Guiomar AJ, Evans SD, Guthrie JT Immobilization of glucose oxidase onto a Langmuir-Blodgett ultrathin film of a cellulose derivative deposited on a self-assembled monolayer SUPRAMOLECULAR SCIENCE 4 279-291, 1997

Evans SD, Cooper SD, Johnson SR, Flynn TM, Ulman A X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of partial and stamped thiol-based self-assembled monolayers, 1997

Boden N, Bushby RJ, Clarkson S, Evans SD, Knowles PF, Marsh A The design and synthesis of simple molecular tethers for binding biomembranes to a gold surface TETRAHEDRON 53 10939-10952, 1997

Williams LM, Evans SD, Flynn TM, Marsh A, Knowles PF, Bushby RJ, Boden N Kinetics of the unrolling of small unilamellar phospholipid vesicles onto self-assembled monolayers LANGMUIR 13 751-757, 1997

Johnson SR, Evans SD, Mahon SW, Ulman A Alkanethiol molecules containing an aromatic moiety self-assembled onto gold clusters LANGMUIR 13 51-57, 1997

Evans SD, Allinson H, Boden N, Henderson JR, Flynn TM Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging of Liquid Crystal Anchoring on Patterned Self-Assembled Monolayers Journal of Physical Chemistry: B 101 2143-2148, 1997

Allinson H, Boden N, Bushby RJ, Evans SD, Martin PS Discotic liquid crystals as self assembled monolayers, 1997

Emmerson CM, Shen TH, Evans SD An in situ study of MBE grown metallic multilayers by simultaneous measurements of optical reflectance and reflection high energy electron diffraction, 1997

Schonherr H, Ringsdorf H, Jaschke M, Butt HJ, Bamberg E, Allinson H, Evans SD Self-assembled monolayers of symmetrical and mixed alkyl fluoroalkyl disulfides on gold .2. Investigation of thermal stability and phase separation LANGMUIR 12 3898-3904, 1996

Emmerson CM, Shen TH, Evans SD, Allinson H A combined in situ optical reflectance-electron diffraction study of Co/Cu and Co/Au multilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy APPL PHYS LETT 68 3740-3742, 1996

Evans SD, Flynn TM, Ulman A, Beamson G XPS imaging of patterned self-assembled monolayers containing perfluorinated alkyl chains SURF INTERFACE ANAL 24 187-&, 1996

Evans SD, Allinson H, Boden N, Henderson JR Surface-field induced organisation at solid/fluid interfaces, 1996

Evans SD Surface Potential In Characterisation of Organic Thin Films , 1996

Smith DA, Webster S, Ayad M, Evans SD, Fogherty D, Batchelder D Development of a scanning near-field optical probe for localised Raman spectroscopy, 1995

FREEMAN TL, EVANS SD, ULMAN A XPS STUDIES OF SELF-ASSEMBLED MULTILAYER FILMS LANGMUIR 11 4411-4417, 1995

EVANS SD, FLYNN TM, ULMAN A SELF-ASSEMBLED MULTILAYER FORMATION ON PREDEFINED TEMPLATES LANGMUIR 11 3811-3814, 1995

BAIN CD, EVANS SD LAYING IT ON THIN CHEM BRIT 31 46-48, 1995

FREEMAN TL, EVANS SD, ULMAN A MULTILAYERS OF OMEGA-MERCAPTOALKANOIC ACIDS CONTAINING A POLAR AROMATIC GROUP - CHARACTERIZATION OF FILMS, 1994

EVANS SD, FREEMAN TL, FLYNN TM, BATCHELDER DN, ULMAN A RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPY OF SELF-ASSEMBLED MONOLAYER AND MULTILAYER FILMS OF ALKANETHIOLATE ON GOLD, 1994

Freeman TL, Evans SD, Ulman A Multilayers ofω-mercaptoalkanoic acids containing a polar aromatic group: characterization of films Thin Solid Films 244 784-788, 1994
DOI:10.1016/0040-6090(94)90571-1
View abstract

Evans SD, Freeman TL, Flynn TM, Batchelder DN, Ulman A Raman spectroscopy of self-assembled mono- and multilayer films of alkanethiolate on gold Thin Solid Films 244 778-783, 1994
DOI:10.1016/0040-6090(94)90570-3
View abstract

EVANS SD, SANASSY P, ULMAN A MIXED ALKANETHIOLATE MONOLAYERS AS SUBSTRATES FOR STUDYING THE LANGMUIR FILM DEPOSITION PROCESS, 1994

BATCHELDER DN, EVANS SD, FREEMAN TL, HAUSSLING L, RINGSDORF H, WOLF H SELF-ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS CONTAINING POLYDIACETYLENES J AM CHEM SOC 116 1050-1053, 1994

SANASSY P, EVANS SD MIXED ALKANETHIOL MONOLAYERS ON GOLD SURFACES - SUBSTRATES FOR LANGMUIR-BLODGETT-FILM DEPOSITION LANGMUIR 9 1024-1027, 1993

ULMAN A, EVANS SD, SHARMA R WETTING STUDIES OF MOLECULARLY HETEROGENEOUS SURFACES USING 2 LIQUID-SYSTEMS, 1992

ULMAN A, EVANS SD, SNYDER RG SELF-ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS OF ALKANETHIOLS ON GOLD - SULFONE GROUPS ENHANCING 2-DIMENSIONAL ORGANIZATION, 1992

TREDGOLD RH, HODGE P, ALIADIB Z, EVANS SD SURFACE-POTENTIALS OF LANGMUIR-BLODGETT ALTERNATING LAYER STRUCTURES, 1992

ULMAN A, EVANS SD, SHNIDMAN Y, SHARMA R, EILERS JE MIXED ALKANETHIOL MONOLAYERS ON GOLD SURFACES - WETTING AND STABILITY STUDIES ADV COLLOID INTERFAC 39 175-224, 1992

EGDELL RG, EVANS SD, STRADLING RA, LI YB, PARKER SD, WILLIAMS RH OBSERVATION OF SPATIAL-DISPERSION OF SURFACE-PLASMON MODE IN HREELS OF HEAVILY DOPED N-TYPE INAS(001) SURF SCI 262 444-450, 1992

EVANS SD, GOPPERTBERARDUCCI KE, URANKAR E, GERENSER LJ, ULMAN A MONOLAYERS HAVING LARGE INPLANE DIPOLE-MOMENTS - CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFONE-CONTAINING SELF-ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS OF ALKANETHIOLS ON GOLD BY FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED-SPECTROSCOPY, X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON-SPECTROSCOPY, AND WETTING LANGMUIR 7 2700-2709, 1991

EVANS SD, ULMAN A, GOPPERTBERARDUCCI KE, GERENSER LJ SELF-ASSEMBLED MULTILAYERS OF OMEGA-MERCAPTOALKANOIC ACIDS - SELECTIVE IONIC INTERACTIONS J AM CHEM SOC 113 5866-5868, 1991

EVANS SD, URANKAR E, ULMAN A, FERRIS N SELF-ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS OF ALKANETHIOLS CONTAINING A POLAR AROMATIC GROUP - EFFECTS OF THE DIPOLE POSITION ON MOLECULAR PACKING, ORIENTATION, AND SURFACE WETTING PROPERTIES J AM CHEM SOC 113 4121-4131, 1991

ULMAN A, EVANS SD, SHNIDMAN Y, SHARMA R, EILERS JE, CHANG JC CONCENTRATION-DRIVEN SURFACE TRANSITION IN THE WETTING OF MIXED ALKANETHIOL MONOLAYERS ON GOLD J AM CHEM SOC 113 1499-1506, 1991

EVANS SD, SHARMA R, ULMAN A CONTACT-ANGLE STABILITY - REORGANIZATION OF MONOLAYER SURFACES LANGMUIR 7 156-161, 1991

EVANS SD, ULMAN A SURFACE-POTENTIAL STUDIES OF ALKYL-THIOL MONOLAYERS ADSORBED ON GOLD CHEM PHYS LETT 170 462-466, 1990

EVANS SD, CAO LL, EGDELL RG, DROOPAD R, PARKER SD, STRADLING RA PROTECTIVE OVERLAYER TECHNIQUES FOR PREPARATION OF INSB(001) SURFACES SURF SCI 226 169-179, 1990

TREDGOLD RH, EVANS SD, HODGE P, HOORFAR A STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRICAL STUDIES OF ALTERNATING LAYERS OF PORPHYRINS AND FATTY-ACIDS THIN SOLID FILMS 160 99-105, 1988

TREDGOLD RH, EVANS SD, HODGE P, JONES R, STOCKS NG, YOUNG MCJ LANGMUIR-BLODGETT-FILMS FROM PORPHYRINS BRIT POLYM J 19 397-400, 1987

Booth M, Brown AP, Evans SD, Critchley K Determining the Concentration of CuInS2 Quantum Dots from the Size-Dependent Molar Extinction Coefficient Chemistry of Materials -,
DOI:10.1021/cm300227b

Bushby RJ, Cattle J, Bao P, Bramble JP, Evans SD, Lydon JE, Tate DJ Controlled planar alignment of discotic liquid crystals in microchannels made using SU8 photoresist,